Friday, April 5, 2019

Comparing Chinese Herbal Medicine And Modern Medicine Sociology Essay

Comparing Chinese herbaceous plant tea tea tea music And Modern medicinal drug Sociology EssayThis project is to compargon Chinese herbal tea example of practice of medical specialty with modern (Western) medicine in terms of enculturation, sociological and homo swell-being effects. An online strategy has been created to showcase a number of touristy Chinese herbals in pronounce to gain better understanding on the focal point that these herbs keep dead form balance and harmony. The system alike help concourse to check the exposition of Chinese herbs Also the use uprs tush comment on the mesh rig,and exchange their views with early(a)s.Also, galore(postnominal) sociological and philosophic reasons that s blossom affect the great unwasheds opinions atomic number 18 discussed in the research section of this report.1. Introduction1.1 Project hazardgroundThe background of this project pile be thought asthe points sh feellight-emitting diodege below.At any time, healthy is an historic element for a human well being. particularly at present, e preciseone is theoriseing more(prenominal) intimately their health while working and living under the coerce of economic recession. Research has shown that most quite a little choose modern medicine, i.e., western medicine to cure diseases. entirely non only modern medicine costs too much but to a fault it has aspect defects. In 2009, after the Ameri toi allowte singer Michael Jackson died, many slew rush realized that fetching more medicines freighter get mosttimes unpleasant side effect, and slightlytimes, fatal. Furthermore, because of the pandemic of Swine Flu, throng rush started to conceive more about disease pr deport downtion than just curing them. To this end, Chinese herbal medicine puke help and has since become more popular than sooner, which is a very natural choice. So, more and more lot argon interest in Chinese herbal tea medicament (CHM). According to World Hearth musical arrangement (WHO) vane rapscallion, the following description has been given During its 3000-year history, traditional Chinese medicine pioneered interventions such as diet, exercise, aw beness of environmental influences on health, and the use of herbal remedies as part of a holistic approach to health.(1). Chinese herbal tea music croup be use as in evidence.However,, similar to any new(prenominal) medicine, CHM is complicated, even to Chinese good deal. To understand Chinese Herbal Medicine is not unaffixed. So, a system thatcan depict the hit the sackledge of Chinese herbal medicine can help people who argon not used to CHM in many ways.1.2 Problem definitionFrom the questionnaire conducted in this project and shown in Appnediex, more than 80% non-Chinese people perceive about Chinese Herbal Medicine,.Whereas , more than a half of them prefer modern medicine. So, why donot they handle Chinese medicine is the low gear question to ask.Secondly, Accor ding to the questionnaire, more than 60% people use cyberspace everyday, which means, with the nurture of e-commerce, Internet can be a tool that provides people with contrasting views on Chinese herbal medicine. But, during the research, until now, just a few nett web site can support this, which atomic number 18A) http// http// http// the other hand, there be roughly problems in these leash web sites. assure1 the first web site at http// web scalawag A can be used to corrupt rough herbs on line,i.e., it is a on-line shopping web site.There is not any information regarding the background of these herbs. From this web site, users only can buy the herbs, but can not learn the knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine.Figure 2 the second web site.Similarly, web site B can only provide general information on CM, but not information regarding each individual herb and its functions.Figure3 the deuce-ace web siteOn the other hand, webpage C provides amount of useful information on CHM. However, once again when it comes to each herb, the knowledge is not there with a number of translation errors. In summary, although there are a few web sites that provide information on Chinese herbal medicine, for people with shrimpy knowledge of CHM, a new web sited is engageed to work as an educational tool as well as an online shopping site, which is what this project does.1.3 AimsThe claim of this project is to plan and build a web site system that allows users with little knowledge of CHM to learn and understand Chinese herbal medicine. Another aim is to start an online discussion forum to find the reasons behind that why so many people dont know or disapproval CHM.1.4 ObjectivesGather information on the knowledge of CHM based on questionnaires.Interview with doctors who practice CHM.Carry out research on these topicsDesign and build an online sys tem.Evaluate the online website.Write final report on project.2 Literature reviewThis chapter engage review three accommodates on Chinese medicine, which overwhelm Chinese herbal medicine -A practical guide to the healing power of herbs by Guang Xu (Give reference in the end), Medicine East And West Two Ways of seeing, devil ways of thinking by Ted J.kaptchuk (reference), Chinese herbal medicine Formulas and Strategies by Dan Bensky and Randall Barolet (reference) and Chinese Herbal Legends by Zhu Zhongbao (reference).2.1 The healing power of herbsIn the go for indite by Guang Xu, the author tries to give a general overview about Chinese herbal medicine. The think chapters can be divided into twain parts, one is Chinese herbal medicine history, another(prenominal) one is the elements of Chinese herbal medicine.Chinese herbal medicine has a long history of more than 5000 years. The history can go back to the time of Sheng Nong, when Chinese people used plants to treat the i llness further than a few thousand years.As explained by the author, Chinese herbal medicine is rooted in the culture of centuries, it cannot be easily explained or measured by modern scientific language and methods. Without a bring understanding of its background and its history, it is very difficult to understand. reference . According to Chinese gardening, underlyingally, there are dickens distinct elements that can affect Chinese Herbal Medicine. One is Yin (darkness) Yang (brightness), another one is Five-Element Theory. By understanding these two elements, it is easier for people who dont know CHM to comprehend Chinese Herbal Medicine.2.1.1 Yin and Yang (darkness and brightness)Yin Yang, which is from traditional Chinese philosophy, is the reveal of two related things that are opposite in the natural world, i.e., everything in the universe can have two opposite, such as sunshine, fire, light, which are Yang. On the other hand, grey, dark, cold, belong to the element of Y in. In Chinese Medicine, Yin-Yang theory is an important element with the whole medicine system and can be employed to explain the remains system and guide the treatment. For exampleYin-Yang implies that everything in the world has an opposite, such as sky and land, sun and moon. Although they are opposite, they alike can be an whizz. finished this unity, the natural world can keep the balance well.Yin-Yang depends on with each other, meaning if there is no Yang, there is no Yin. When the balance of the comparisonship of the substance of Yin-Yang are destroyed, the life might reach its end.On the other hand, Yin-Yang has a special relationship. If one wanes the other provide wax. For example, just as the four seasons, if winter changes to spring, the weather should be fond. It is the process of Yin waxes and Yang wanes.Five-Element TheoryThe Five-element theory includes fire, metal, water system, wood and earth, as well as their motions. The ancient Chinese people found the se five elements are the basic substances in universe. These five kinds of elements have relationship of generation and restriction, as found in Chinese Herbal Medicine, Chinese doctors use them to describe the problems of disease as explained in the followingReinforcing the spleen (earth) to strengthen the lung (metal) affliction of water (kidney) to nourish wood (or failure of the kidney to nourish the liver) Five movements and six climatesWood tending to penetrate out freelyDepression of the liver (wood) generating fireFire of the liver (wood) impairing the lung (metal)Fire tending to sparkle/flame upward Excessive fire impairing the lung (metal) Failure of fire to generate earth Coordination between water (kidney) and fire (heart)In coordination between the kidney (water) and the heart (fire) Being restricted and restricting Philosophical concept handed-down Chinese herbal medicine, however, can be based on two treatments which are on philosophical concept. The Holisti c ConceptBy this concept, there is a general meaning, i.e., the human dust is a unity and a universe is within a body. On the other hand, it has a close interaction with the world. conventional Chinese Medicine maintains that a human body is composed of contrastive reed organs with each organ having its own distinct function, as a part of the whole body. Also, Chinese medicine regards the whole body as an organic body. Its constituent parts are inseparable in structure, interrelated and interdependent in physiology. Man has a nature life, and nature provides an environment for mans survival. So, human can be affected by nature. customs dutys Chinese Medicine states Physicians have to know the law of nature and geographical conditions when diagnosing and treating diseases . That is the reason of Tradition Chinese Medicine not only stresses the human body is a unity but also regards the interrelationship between the body and nature environment. Treatment by Differentiation of SyndromesChinese herbal medicine, on the other hand, is also dumb as treatment by diverseiation of syndromes. The meaning of differentiation is to dissect the diseases by comprehensive, implying that the patients symptoms and signs collected by the following four diagnostic methods are analyzed and summarized in order to identify the etiology, nature and location of a disease, and the relationship between vital qi (air) and pathogens, thereby to situate what syndrome a disease in concern belongs to.According to the relationship between disease and treatment, traditional Chinese medicine is based on two different ways. One is to treat the same disease with different therapies. Whilst another one is to treat different diseases with the same therapy, i.e., different disease can be manifested in the same situation may be treated in the same way.In summary, development different methods for the treatment of the disease is the core of Treatment by Differentiation of Syndromes.2.2 Chinese Medicine and Western MedicineThe book by Ted J.kaptchuk discusses the difference between East and West medicines, such as why just about westerners dislike Chinese Medicine? There is a philosophic reason, which is that Chinese culture is hard to understand. But, another reason is sociological. That is the way of western people thinking about Chinese Medicine. In this book, author gives two different views on seeing and thinking via westerners view, If a non-Chinese person can found these two ways, he/she might become interested in Chinese Medicine.The first one is concerned with treatment result. umpteen non-chinese have strange notions about Chinese medicine, somewhat of them see it as hocus-pocus-the product of primitive or magical thinking. If a patient is cured by means of herbs or acupuncture, they see only two practicable explanations Either the cure is a placebo effect, or it is an accident.To many people, when they heard about CHM, the first scent in their mind is that, Chinese medicine is magical, but not science. The reason can be understood that Western medicine is based on data. Western doctors prefer using data to treat disease, whereas Chinese doctors are in favor of their experience.Another way of thinking, as described in the book, is Other Westerners have a more favorable but equally erroneous view of Chinese medicine. Deeply and oft justifiably disturbed by many of the products of Western science and culture, they assume that the Chinese system, because it is felt to be more ancient, more spiritual, or more holistic, is also more true than Western medicine.In this way, some Westerners like Chinese medicine, but, because of different background, different culture, different history, their translate Chinese medicine of their own way based on their own culture. Also, they learn Chinese medicine through and through TV, Internet and some other media. In their mind, that is what Chinese medicine should look like.By and mammoth, ther e are two collections of people. One group use Chinese medicine, but, think that Chinese medicine is slight logical and is not based on science. It depends on a patients fortune. Another group of people think Chinese medicine through their own culture. Their minds are oftentimes mixed by this culture and other media. So, in their head, they have a different image of Chinese herbal medicine. But, many times, this image is incomplete.In Summary, the sociological reason that why westerners dislike Chinese medicine is based on a whole system. The Chinese method is based on the idea that no single part can be understood except in its relation to the whole. Understanding this overall pattern, with the symptom as part of it, is the challenge of Chinese medicine. The Chinese system is not less logical, just less analytical.2.3 Formulas and StrategiesThe book on Formulas and Strategies by Dan Bensky and Randall Barolet has divided Chinese herbal medicine as Chinese herbal and Chinese medi cine. Whereas the book by Zhu Zhongbao on Chinese Herbal Legends focuses on the use of herbs.Recently, more and more Chinese doctors found it hard to translate Chinese herbal names. Because, the herbal name is based on Chinese culture and history, and there are so many unexceptionable solutions. Since these books work as a reference text, for our project, our information is to reflect as closely as possible the meaning and syntax of the original CHM. We use anglicized Latin names for medicinal substances. The right translations of herbal can be found from these two books.The following examples are given in the webpage fleshed in this project.1) Cang zhu prenomenEnglish name Swordlike Atractylodes RhizomePharmaceutical name Rhizoma AtractylodisNature and flavor Pungent, bitter and warmActionsDries dampness and strengthens the spleenDispels wind dampnessInduces sweat, releases the exteriorIndicationsSyndrome of dampness stagnation in Middle Burner obstruction syndrome due to wind da mpExterior syndrome of wind , cold and dampnessChickenpox, mumps and scarlet febricityInfantile ricketsNight blindness and dry eyesDiabetes2) Jin Yin HuaNameEnglish name Honeysuckle FlowerPharmaceutical name Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.Nature and flavorSweet and coldActionsClears away lovingness and resolve toxinDisperses wind and heatIndicationsExternal contracted wind-heat, the onset of warm diseaseCarbuncle and clove sores bleeding due to heat toxinMore information about translation will be given by chapter 3result and disscuess.MethodologyBased on the study of literature review, two methods have been applied in the engenderment of this project. One is to conduct questionnaire to gather information from the point of view of Chinese doctors. The other is to design and develop an network based information site providing educational tool on the explanation of what each herb does and a prototype of potential online shopping site to deliver the herbs that people require.3.1 Interview with a Chinese doctorLocation Brent Cross Doctor HerbStudent Name Yuanlei WangFollowing the pass by the supervisor, Dr. Amaldi, this interview took place at Brent Cross Doctor Herb in order to gain insight useful information from a professional CHM practitioner. The Chinese doctor of the clinic described the changing of Chinese herbal medicine during the buy the farm 10 years. After recording, translating, and analysis, the main points can be summarized as follows.As discussed in Section 2, there are two main reasons that Chinese herbal medicine is not as popular as Western medicine. They are sociological and culture.SociologicalIn the past, because Chinese government had closed door policy, Chinese were hardly known to the other world. Nor was Chinese Herbal Medicine, which has led less people being interest in China culture, history, and Chinese herbal medicine. On top of this, Chinese government imposed a culture revolution and ignored CHM, leading to less and less people kno w this medicine, even in China.CultureIn Europe, every medical practice take license to ensure patients safety, which can only obtained by field trial through gathering large amount of data. As discussed in Section 2, CHM is mainly based on experience. Therefore CHM cannot be used in many hospitals, but can be used as additional therapy, such as acupuncture. Because the differences in culture, it is hard for non-Chinese people to understand this invasive technique,On the other hand, the UK National Health wait on (NHS) has only introduced limited CHM. Many GPs (general practitioner) think Chinese herbal medicine is an accident not a science. Because NHS is free to the UK people, whereas CHM cost a lot, people will think twice before go to a CHM shop.Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the UKSince China started an open policy three decades ago, more and more people have visited China and are becoming more and more interested in Chinese culture and therefore CHM.Now, in the UK, there a re over 3000 Chinese medicine shops all over the country, an increase by over 30% in the least 30 years. More and more people have started to take Chinese herbal medicine. Furthermore, the UK government has a plan to legitimate Chinese herbal medicine as part of NHS. So, CHM is getting more and more recognized in improving peoples well being and healthy life.(More information will be given in result and discussion )3.1.4 Media pictureBritish Broadcasting Cooperation (BBC) has also made huge contribution to introduce CHM to the UK. For example, in January 2006, BBC Channel 2 did a programme on Acupuncture Deactivates Brain and again on Back-pain Acupuncture Effective in Septmeber.In these programmes, doctors try to use the acupuncture instead the general anaesthetic. During the first programme, it is said The pain hyaloplasm is involved in the perception of pain it helps someone decide whether something is painful or not, so it could be that acupuncture in some ways changes a pers ons pain perception. But he added The thing about acupuncture is that it does not work on everyone. It is more likely to be effective if you believe it.I think it is a psychological manipulation technique, a distraction. We are not going to get to the stage where this could be used instead of a general anaesthetic.In the second programme, the message is that acupuncture for low back pain is cost-effective and works, according to medical researchers.According to the interview during the questionnaire time, the doctor remembered that after this TV programme, many people found that Chinese herbal medicine are useful for their body. More and more people have visited Chinese medicine shop.This example has shown that media can provide a good way to lot a news. Other means of media should also be applied in this regard.Design and Build an internet based Herbal ShopAlthough TV is a extremely useful way to broadcast a news, it has the limitation of time. Like the two programmes discussed in Section 3.1.4, they were shown near mid-night when most people are gone(p) to bed and missed many viewers. Internet, however, is 24-7 and can be viewed at anytime, any location by using any means (e.g, mobile phone, computer, TV, etc). Therefore in this project, an online system has been created to introduce Chinese herbs plus their relevant information. The web page is at http// 1 display a use-case UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagram viewing the design.Figure 1. A UML diagram showing the developed Chinese Herb webpage (http// system interface is consisted of three main parts, including product viewing page, search engine, input page, and guest book to send users feedbacks, and has client-server structure. In the server, the database is built using MySQL language, a rational database language. While the web interface is constructed using PHP (Personal Home Page) language, a c-like language.When users use this product, the process can be described as follows.Figure 2. System structure.When users enter data through internet interfaces which are coded in PHP. Then the interface through PHP sends/retrieves data to/from MYSQL database that is resided at the web page server at http// .3.2.1 Functions of the systemThis system has three parts, including Guest book, information, and history, which are describe in review.Homepage somewhat Chinese herbal medicineChinese herbalsGuest bookThe history of Chinese herbal medicine.The first function is the information of Chinese herbal medicine., in this web page, users can know the history of Chinese herbal medicine, and other information.Guest bookThe second function is Guest book, in this function, the users can bring through some words in the browser. This part just provides a environment for exchanging ideas.Chinese herbalThe last function is Chinese herbal to introduce its function, flavor, condition, and many more.4 Result and DiscussionTh is Section will discuss the results obtained from the interviewing with a Chinese medicine doctor and the developed prototype online CHM shop and information system.4.1 Results from the interviewingthrough and through the questionnaire and the interview with the Chinese doctor at Brent Corss Clinic, it can be concluded that nearly half of the population dont like to dont know CHM, as illustrated at Figure 6. A considerable number of people have not heard of CHM. And a quarter of people do not know the places to purchase CHM. Many people do even like the taste of CHM, which is similar to many Chinese people who take herbs.Figure 3. Pie chart showing the group of people thinking of CHM.These differences again can be associated to the issues of 1) Culture 2) Translation.3) Media 4) Government 5) The tastes of Herbal. In these data, culture belongs to philosophic reason, whilst media, translation, government and the tastes of herbal relate to sociological reason.CultureChinese Medicine has following characteristics.Preventing is more important than treatmentAccording to Chinese medicine book Yellow Emperor, people should treat disease before they have it, i.e., people should take care of their body before they have illness. Another book Hua inan zi (Chinese medicine) also claims that a good doctor often treats non-diseases, hence there is no disease. I.e., if a doctor can find a persons disease before this person get it, he will never get this disease. This prevention-oriented medical thought that people should take care of their health from an early age, can transform as a measure of dialectical philosophy, which is the burden of Chinese culture.Nature and Man should be togetherThe overall concept of Chinese philosophy focuses on that human and nature world should be together, like a body. That the world and the human are not isolated, and they are interdependent, interacting, and interrelated. When it comes to Chinese Herbal Medicine, it also has the same pinci ple.Chinese herbal medicine advocates astronomy, geography, and persons should be a whole entity. A nature human cannot leave the social world to survive. The constituents that influence health and disease, are concerned with not only biological factors, but also social and psychological factors, So, Chinese Herbal Medicine also advocates treatment that should focus on the change of nature world.To adjust the balance of Yin-Yang (YY)Chinese Medicine mentions that the Yin-Yang is two sided, which is relatively representative of the body. The formation and growth is inseparable from the development of YY. In the bodys convention physiologic conditions, the relative balance of YY is maintained, which is important. If one is changed, the mis-balance will cause the change/disorder of bodys normal physiological function. all in all the actions that a human is doing in the nature world are inseparable from the balance of YY. Therefore, the aim of the coordination shows that traditional Chinese culture focus on symmetry, the bedrock philosophy of the balance.Static and dynamic idea of the constant combiningFrom the early age, Chinese Philosophy already found the relationship between passive and dynamic understanding , as stated in the Book of Change (Zhou Yi). The static and dynamic things are happening constantly. The substance in the nature world should keep moving and changing. In the whole human life, everything in the body, should keep changing until the end. Motion is the rule of nature world. It is the basic element of human health. So, Chinese Medicine stresses dynamics that can treat disease. Just as the same way that people know that sporting is good for health. On the other hand, comparing with dynamic view, Chinese Herbal Medicine also found that silence can also be a healthy habit. Qi Gong (i.e., summons art) is based on this opinion. So, Static and dynamic element should be completed.TranslationA good translation can help people with different cult ure background understand Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) better. Because CHM has its own culture and history , sometimes, it is difficult to translate the words exactly, which can cause frustration and lead more people lose their interest in CHM, which is explained below.The philosophic meaning in the medicine name. Some CHM names are based on their own philosophic meaning, such as Yin Yang, Yuan Qi and so on. If people do not know Chinese philosophic culture, it would be hard to translate.For some CHM doctors, when they translate medicine names, they sometimes copy some western medicine names. Whereas actually those medicines are on the whole different.Because of the long history of China, Chinese Herbal Medicine is based on an old knowledge system. Through more than thousand years, some of them have already lost their meanings with only a few people understanding. So, even to some knowledgeable Chinese people, translating medicine names is a hard job.Other factors include Media. A ccording to data analysis from the questionaire, media is a very important means in order to let more people know Chinese medicine. However media can be limited, such as the hurt time of a TV programme leading to many people missing the show.Another factor is Governmental In the past, Chinese Government had a closed door policy, which has limited knowledge of CHM.The questionnaire has also concluded that bad taste of herbs may also have some effect to prevent people taking them.Online shopping systemFigures 3-6 illustrate the snapshots of web interfaces of the developed prototype online information and shopping system.Figure 4. The interface showing the Herb information.Figure 5. Input interface.Figure 6. Search engine.Figure 7. Guest book for sending users feedbacks.The system now contains more than 20 herbs information.System EvaluationThe evaluation of the developed web site is based on heuristic evaluation. That can give a general overview of the web site, also, through this wa y, it can give a good idea for developers to improve the system design.The purpose of this evaluation is that, users have a task to browse the complete web pages. This task should start on the home page and finish when users get the feedback. Through this way, users can have a general view of the system by following the rules shown below.User control and freedomUsers control and freedom can be understood that system can support users undo or do. Through the task we choose, users can find that it is not easy for them to control the web sites. ie, in the comment page, when users submit the words, they will find that there is a spillage for them to resubmit.Fun and usanceAccording the purpose of this web site, the web site should give the information of the Chinese herbal medicine to users. That means that the web pages should be fun, but these web pages are very plain, i.e., 1) All the background colours are white. 2) The web site is too simply , There is no enjoyment for users.Feed backFeedback is important for users to understand the information of the web site. In this web site, users can comment and see the other feedbacks.Provide short cutsShort cuts are easily for users to find what they want. In general, the web site is useful. Users can find the information regarding Chinese herbal medicine that need from the home page.Aesthetics and minimalist designNormally, users can have a good feeling with a good minimalist design. But, this web site is boring at this point. Through all web pages, there is no colour, no pictures, all the buttons are closed with each other. That might be caused some mistakes of users.On the other hand, there are some positive feedbacks. The users can find buttons easily, especially on the last page, where there is a comment page, providing a good interaction between users and the web site.In summary, this web site is fine, users can get some general information about Chinese herbal medicine from this web site, also, this web site ha s a guest page. Users can have a good interaction with the system.According heuristic evaluation, there are some negative aspects. Such as, 1)This system is very simply . 2) The colours are not very good. 3) It is boring for users 4) Some steps are not useful.All in all, this web site can give users a general opinion of Chinese herbal medicine.RecommendationsThere are some aspects which need to recommend.It should change colours of the web pages.The system should not be simple.The web site should increase some enjoyment.It should provide the search function for users.The web pages should give more freedom to users.ConclusionThis project aims at introducing people Chinese Herbal Medicine and has developed an online system providing information on Chinese herbs. The design of the system applies client-server structure and employ

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