Thursday, October 3, 2019

Individual Behavior (Organizations) Essay Example for Free

Individual Behavior (Organizations) Essay Individual behavior is considered as one of the main determinants of the productivity of a given organization. The said relationship is believed to be very important that an entire academic discipline was created to focus on its study. Organizational behavior is a field of study that concentrates on describing, understanding, predicting and controlling human behavior in an organizational setting. It is divided into four sub-fields – individual behavior, group behavior, organizational structure and organizational processes. These allow organizational behavior to study a wide range of topics, such as personality, job satisfaction, leadership, group dynamics and the impact of stress on work (Answers, 2008). Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations It is true that human behavior varies from one person to another due to their individual differences. However, organizational behavior scientists argued that individual behavior is made up of the same elements. These elements must be identified in order to establish predictability in the study of human behavior. The consistency of these elements result in the development of reasonably accurate predictions of individual behavior (NEU-CBA, n. d. ). Understanding Individuals in Organization Organizational behavior scientists use the psychological contract in their study in order to understand the members of a particular organization. Psychological contract refers to a members expectations based on his or her contributions and the organizations inducements. Contributions are what the member provides to the organization. Inducements, on the other hand, are what the organization will provide the member in exchange for the latters contributions (Abelson, 2006). Personality and Individual Behavior In sharp contrast to psychological contract, the element of personality and individual behavior assert that individual behavior within an organization is determined by â€Å"the relatively permanent set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another† (Abelson, 2006). One of the most popular personality frameworks is the â€Å"Big Five† Personality Traits. It is composed of the following: a) Agreeableness – A persons ability to establish good relationships with others b) Conscientiousness – The number of goals of which a person strives hard to achieve c) Negative emotionality – The extent to which an individual can remain poised, calm, resilient and secure d) Extraversion – The level of comfort a person has with interpersonal relationships e) Openness – An individuals flexibility in terms of beliefs and interests (Abelson, 2006) Attitudes and Individual Behavior Attitudes are the beliefs and feelings that people have regarding certain ideas, situations or other people. Cognitive dissonance occurs when an individuals encounters other people who does not share his or her attitudes. The element of attitudes and individual behavior believe that members of an organization behave the way they do because it is their means of dealing with people who possess attitudes that are different from theirs. For an organization to be productive, its member must learn how to respect each others differences and work as a team despite their diversity in beliefs, attitudes and values (Abelson, 2006). Work-related Attitudes It must be noted, however, that individual behavior in an organization can also be influenced by attitudes that were developed in the workplace. Some examples of work-related attitudes are the following: a) Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction – An attitude that reflects the amount of pleasure or fulfillment that an individual achieves from his or her work b) Organizational Commitment – An attitude that measures a persons degree of affinity with the organization itself c) Affect and Mood in Organizations i. Positive Affectivity – A tendency to exhibit an overall sense of optimism and well-being; sees things in a positive light ii. Negative affectivity – A tendency to exhibit an overall sense of pessimism and gloom; sees things negatively (Abelson, 2006). Perception and Individual Behavior This element defines a persons behavior as a result of his or her perception, or the set of processes by which he or she becomes aware of his or her environment and starts to interpret information about it. One of the most detrimental forms of perception is selective perception, or the practice of disregarding information that a person feels uncomfortable with or goes against his or her own beliefs. Selective perception may lead to stereotyping or the usage of a single attribute to categorize or label other people. Selective perception may also result in scapegoating or making other people take responsibility for ones own faults and shortcomings (Abelson, 2006). Stress and Individual Behavior Stress is â€Å"an individual’s response to a strong stimulus,† called a stressor (Ableson, 2006). The general cycle of the human body experiencing and recovering from stress is the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Often caused by task, physical, role and interpersonal demands, one of the major effects of stress is burnout, or the feeling of exhaustion produced by undergoing stress for prolonged periods of time (Abelson, 2006). Experts categorized people into two types, depending on how much they can endure stress. â€Å"Type A† people were those who are very competitive, hardworking and are extremely particular when it comes to time. â€Å"Type B† people, on the other hand, were those who were not as hardworking, dilligent and time-conscious. It was said that â€Å"Type A† people were more likely to experience burnout than â€Å"Type B† individuals (Abelson, 2006). Creativity in Organizations This element stresses the importance of an organizations creativity in affecting the behavior of its members. An organization that is always able to come up with new ideas or new perspectives that will improve existing ideas have a greater chance of improving productivity among its members than an organization who strictly adheres to convention and does not welcome innovation. Types of Workplace Behavior The effectiveness of an organization is very much affected by workplace behavior, or the pattern of action exhibited by its members while working. Workplace behavior is categorized into four types: a) Performance Behaviors – The â€Å"total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display† (Abelson, 2006). An organizations performance behaviors is usually indicated in its manual for its members. Performance behaviors are one of the organizations ways of communicating to its members what are its objectives and how will these be attained. b) Withdrawal Behaviors – Characterized by the absence of an organizations members i. Absenteeism – When people develop a habitual pattern of not showing up for work ii. Turnover – When people resign from their jobs c) Organizational Citizenship – When people display behavior that contributes positively and immensely to their organization. d) Dysfunctional Behaviors – Behaviors that are detrimental to organizational performance (e. g. stealing office property, fighting in the office premises, reporting to work in improper attire, etc. ) When a person shows dysfunctional behavior, he or she is sending the message that he or she does not belong to the organization that he or she joined and that he or she has contempt for those who do. In addition, the person who exhibits dysfunctional behavior also has contempt for the organization itself, as well as for its objectives (Abelson, 2006). Conclusion An organization is composed of individual members who have different backgrounds, beliefs, values and principles. Hence, it is very crucial to train them how to work harmoniously with one another despite their differences. By identifying the elements of individual behavior in an organization, employers can establish standards and rules that are firm but at the same time considerate towards the workers needs. Not only will the company prosper; the employees will also become better workers and persons as well. References Abelson, M. (2006). Chapter 15 – Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations. PDF File. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://wehner. tamu. edu/mgmt. www/mgmt. 363/non-business_363/Chapter%2015%20%20-%20Griffin%208th%20Edition. pdf. Answers. com. (2008). Organizational Behavior. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://www. answers. com/topic/organizational-behavior? cat=biz-fin Northeastern University – College of Business Administration (NEU-CBA). (n. d. ). Human Behavior in Organizations: An Introduction. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://web. cba. neu. edu/~ewertheim/introd/introd. htm

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