Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Global Business Cultural Analysis: Singapore Essay

filchThis research paper will fill a comprehensive orbiculate job Cultural Analysis of the country of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of Singapore. The paper will stoppage out the complexities of the relationship the US should consider before deciding to go tune in Singapore. The analysis will explore the study elements and dimensions of Singapores culture, how these elements and dimensions be integrated by locals conducting person-to-person credit line in the nation of Singapore, how these pointors comp ar with US culture and business, and address implications for US businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.History and GeographySingapore, or the Republic of Singapore, was founded in 1819 as a British trading colony. It is located on the study sea course mingled with India and China. Singapore is known today as angiotensin transfering enzyme of the most(prenominal) prosperous countries and boasts the populations busiest port. It is clean and orderly, and since congruous an supreme country, Singapore is whizz of the least corrupt countries in the world. Because of much(prenominal) positive characteristics, multinational countries seek to do business in Singapore. Singapore, formally the Republic of Singapore, is a sou-east Asiatic city-state off the southern fart of the Malay Peninsula. Singapore is a parliamentary democracy and relieve aceselfed its independence in 1965. It is a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi- ghostlike hostel consisting of quatern official languages incline, Chinese, Malay, and Tamil. Under the leadership of leeward Kwan Yew as prime minister, Singapore has developed into one of the cleanest, safest, and most economically prosperous cities in Asia. Singapore is the worlds fourth preeminent financial c premise, and its port is one of the five busiest ports in the world (De Prato, 2013). In order to understand the development of Singapor e, we must(prenominal) first take a look into Singapores history. During the 16th and 19th century, the Malay Archipelago was taken over by the European colonial powers.The Dutch controlled most of the ports in the land and established a monopoly over trade at bottom the Archipelago country. At this time, Sir Stamford present was ap flowed Lieutenant Governor of the British colony. During his reign, the trade route among China and British India passed by Archipelago. Raffles hoped to challenge the Dutch restrictions on trade by opening a naked as a jaybird port. at once he received the funding, Raffles found an island that possessed a cancel deep harbor, fresh water supplies and timber for upcoming ships. The island was named the Lion City. harmonise to legend, when the Prince of Palembang, Sang Nila Tama, landed on the island, he saw an animal that was plausibly a tiger, however he mis overlyk it for a lion, and so he named the island, Singa Pura, or Lion City (Sin gapore Country Report, 2003). Raffles rallied together with Temenggong Abdur Rahman, who headed a scummy Malay destinytlement, traceed a treaty talent them adepts to establish a trading port. After the treaty was signed, modern day Singapore was established. The hoi polloi of Singapore make up around 1000 in nation and, due to migration from Malaya and other parts of Asia, population grew to 100,000. Raffles was prohibited from salt away port duties during the beginning operations of the port because the port was a gratis(p) port. This news spread quickly and by 1825, trade volume gaind.A second treaty was signed by John Crawford in 1823, giving the British door to much of the land and correctioning the island to British law. Under this law, Singapore had to take into account Malay use of goods and servicess, traditions, and devotion. In 1826, the British settlements of Malacca, Penang, and Singapore were engender to form the Colony of the Straights Settlement (Busin ess Source Complete, 2012). In the years surrounded by the 19th and the 20th centuries, the British established nurtureorates over the Malay sultanates on the peninsula. Large scale rubber and tin production as healthy as a system of public administration were developed during the British rule. The British had much control until World War II. After the war, territories of peninsular Malaysia get together together to form the compact of Malaya in 1948. In 1963, the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and Sabah joined the federation, which was renamed Malaysia (Business Source Complete, 2012).After becoming autarkic, Singapore faced numerous dangers the threat of an attack by the Indonesian military and forcible re-integration into the Malaysia Federation on unfavorable terms. Singapores survival was in heading. Unemployment, housing, breeding and the lack of resources and land were as well pressing chores. Singapore then joined the unite Nations and the Commonweal th. Sinnathamby Rajaratnam was prime minister and he helped with developing diplomatic relations with other countries. The service and manufacturing sector grew. Singapore alike quartered big inunct companies like Shell and Esso. procreation became a study focal point and side was adopted as the language of instruction. The politics as well emphasize training to develop a more(prenominal) suitable workforce.What argon the major elements and dimensions of culture in Singapore? colloquyCulture make fors the historical accept of a people, is embedded in their institutions, and shapes their attitudes and stomachations intimately the world (Zakaria, 2012). First, lets begin with converse. Singapore has four major spoken languages Malay, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, and English. English is the most common language spoken which is very important in terms of conducting international business. just about of the schools in Singapore teach English as the first language. These car dinal factors create a favorable expediency to doing business in Singapore. With Singapores port being one of the busiest in the world, English teaching and English babble outing has proven to be a positive factor in conducting business. A business partner, with equitable English speaking background has very little difficulty in communication with locals. A nonher positive factor besides Singapores multilingual background is its multi-ethnic blend. Ethnic Chinese people speak both Mandarin and English. This enables them to fall in access to the Chinese grocery. And its easier for importers, exporters and garmentors to do business with ease. Ethnic Indonesian speaking people provides better access to the market in India.Singapore may be a subaltern country but its diverse culture help to create a country that is able to thrive in a very war-ridden market. When considering doing business with them, none a few characteristics that ar important aspects of complemental busine ss madely. Non-verbal communication is erect as important as verbal. Singaporeans avow on nervus facialis expressions, tones of voice, and posture when interacting with a business partner. And they really consider these non-verbal messages. Singaporeans or else state I will try or I will see what I can do rather than say no. This is what they call saving face and maintaining amity. They believe in silence. hotshot should pause before responding to show actual thought has taken into precondition before answering. Greetings ar establish on age and ethnic radical also. Younger Singaporeans frisson hands with everyone while older Singaporeans ar more reserve. In Ethnic Chinese, men and women shake hands but it is custom for the woman to extend her hand first. In Ethnic Malay, men shake hands with men but non with women. Muslim men do not touch women in public. It is more appropriate to use the salaam bowing of the head greeting ReligionMost modern states afford polic ies for the focal point of religion (Lin, 2012). For those with diverse religious communities, such as Singapore, the question of how to ensure the peaceful coexistence of various religions befits an important challenge for the governments concerned. (Lin, 2012). In an drift to maintain genial stability and political power, the government introduced various measures, such as the White Paper on Maintenance of Religious accordance (January 1989) and the White Paper on overlap set (Ping, 2012). The major religious denominations in Singapore are Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism. The origin of Christianity trace back to 1965 after Singapore gained its independence. English was the official language of Singapore, churches could easily communicate the gospel. topical anesthetic laypeople and ministers became involved in establishing churches, Christian ministries and missionary schools. Missionary schools were established to uprise the next generation of leaders. The s ubject Council of churches was the first organization established to represent Christians.The Singapore Industrial Mission was established in 1966 to help fire the vision and the building of a viable human and mature residential area to help the confederacy to become a participant and creative community organized for the interest of all and, to surrogate new hearty determine that would help in cultivating inter-racial community understanding and impregnablearity (Goh, 2010). Today, Christianity still exists in Singapore with majority of the members being of Protestant denomination and the rest Catholic. Christianity is viewed as one of affluence, pass aroundive value and an international flair. Buddhism originated in India when Siddhrtha Gautama or Buddha went into meditation for 49 days and upon awakening, he had complete insight into the cause of ugly and he knew the steps necessary to eliminate it. The Four Noble Truths became his teaching.They are 1) in that locatio n is suffering (dukkha), 2) in that respect is a cause or origin of suffering (samudaya), 3) there is an end of suffering (nirodha), and 4) there is a path out of suffering (magga) which is the Noble Eightfold Path, (Ong and Chang, 2012). Buddhas teaching are not just ethical guidelines but offer a grand insight into temper of reality. Buddhism, which was regarded as a newfound religion, became prevalent in the books of travelers as well as philosophers and it was soon established as an academic discipline within various universities and colleges towards the close of the century, (Aljunied, (2005). Islam is a religion of peace, love, harmony, and tranquility for all human race (Tahir, 2012). The Almighty Allah revealed in the Quran, the Islamic set apart Book, guidance of humankind. The main focus of all the teachings of prophets is on the creation of a virtuous being, (p. 120). In order to become a muslin, faith in all the prophets or a revealed book is necessary. The first pr ophet was Hazrat Adams and Hazrat Muhammad is the ultimately prophet revealed by the Almighty Allah. After World War II and Singapore gaining its independence, Muslims became a minority due to the separation. Muslims were deprived of many an(prenominal) social advantages and prestige they were once accustomed to.Racist feelings began to form among the people. Muslims formed the Dar Al-Arqam smart set in an effort to confront the effects of the Christian missionaries who were trying to convert exclusive faiths. The Dar Al-Arqam was formed with the objective of having a place where the new Muslim converts could get together and develop the fraternal, religious and social relationships among themselves. Official Hinduism is dominate by Agamic, Shaivite precepts and practiced by the elite in Singapore, (Sebastian, 2008). Sinha has argued that a cosmic government issue of Hindu reformist organizations induce established a forepart in Singapore since the 1970s and that many of th e adherents of these organizations refer to themselves as Hindus but redefine the category in doing so by assigning new meaning to it, (Sebastian, 2008, p.75) They are considered a minority but make their front man known by holding public festivals, establishing temples, and locals have established what they call, dinky India. Today, there are many temples dedicated to Hindu gods and goddesses. The Hindu Endowments poster and The Hindu Advisory Board are set up by the government in order to monitor Hindu affairs. determine and Attitude, moralsSingapores culture is undercoatd on Shared Values and Confucian Ethics. Asian cultures are distinguished by a set of value that include obedience to authority, intense allegiance to groups, and a concentration of individual identity. It is the states attempt to unite its people finished the vision of a shared fatality. The viewl of a shared fate is expressed by the state developing institutional and conceptual mounts in which vari ed communities can foster ties and shared practices while preserving religious and ethnic differences (Tan, 2012). Because of multiracialism in Singapore, De launchy found Minister Goh Chok Tong created a vision of Our Shared Values, which are intended to be shared by all Singaporeans, heedless of ethnicity, religion, and other differences. The Shared Values consist of the following five handsome principles * nation before community and society before self* family as the basic unit of society* community support and appraise for the individual* consensus, not conflict* racial and religious harmonyConfucian is based on the same theory. Confucianism upholds the cardinal belief that every individual possesses the right to human dignity and equality (Tan, 2012).EducationIn 1997, National Education (NE) was added to the curriculum to strengthen the messages of moral and citizenship take aimion, particularly those to do with young Singaporeans attitudes to the country. National Educ ation takes the form of school activities distributed throughout the school year. Its messages are also incorporated in school subjects wherever appropriate, and comprise the following Singapore is our homeland this is where we belong we must preserve racial and religious harmony we must uphold meritocracy and incorruptibility no one owes Singapore a lifetime we must ourselves defend Singapore and we have confidence in our future, (Han, 2007 MOE, 2004a)How are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in Singapore? Combating putridness understand degeneracy is imperative for legal scholarship, both as an intellectual subject and because corruption impedes the operation of law in much of the world and inflicts molest on well-being, governance, and quality of life (Nichols, 2012, p.145). Corruption inflicts substantial damage to a nation. It weakens the government and causes poor decision making. It also affects the composition of the decision maker. Co rruption causes economic fragility, it degrades the connection between the government and the people, and it degrades the quality of life. The Transparency internationalistics Corruption Perceptions tycoon was developed by Johann Lambsdorff, and is used by specialist in order to find out how much corruption there is within a country. According to the index, Singapore scored 9.3 which means Singapore effectively is among those countries with the least amount of perceived corruption in the world (Nichols, 2012, p.151).Gender discrimination and job related outcomesWhen considering doing business in Singapore, expect to encounter female business partners. pistillate Singaporean business owners have at least 10 years schooling, while 35 percent held first or postgraduate degrees, 15 percent had professional or polytechnic qualifications and 50 percent had completed secondlevel education (Ramon, Valerie, 1999). The five major factors which best(p) motivate Singaporean female business owners in particular are (1) the perceived armorial bearing of a business opportunity (2) the bank to put their friendship and skills into use (3) the bespeak for independence and flexibility (4) the appetite to achieve personal harvesting and recognition and (5) the need to make more money for financial independence (Ramon, Valerie, 1999 see also Teo, 1996). Although the Singaporean women choose to become members of the working population, society still expects the office staff of traditional women in the household to be played, particularly as married woman and mother. The working women still face the conflict of work and family and despite the number of rising educational level and attainments, Singapores female managers are still fewer in number when compared to males.From a Confucian persuasionSingapores state vision, Shared Values, resemble Confucian values. How do they differ? Confucian does not recognize civil and political rights. Confucian upholds the idea that e very individual possesses the right to human dignity and equality. For Confucians, social relationships are characterized by social positions, or roles, and social positions are outlined in terms of obligations, (Nuyen, (2008). Confucian core teaching is the ethical idea of a noble person, the virtue of humanity, and the process of self-cultivation. Confucian values are group identity, duty consciousness, personal discipline, consensus formation, the priority of collective interests, and emphasis on education and pragmatism (Tan, 2012, p. 462). These values recognize cultural differences. From a Confucian perspective, shared values should not be regarded as a religion in the sense of being a faith system. Shared values should remain nonreligious. Many of Singaporeans religious teaching are compatible to Confucian.How do both of the above items compare with US culture and business?CommunicationCommunication is one of the most important factors when considering doing business with Sin gapore. Due to the fact that English is the most common language spoken in Singapore, this has made conducting business with the unify States easier. Understanding other factors will aid communicating with business partners. Communication differences can be found between the two countries. Singapore is a high-context country while the get together States is considered a low-context country. In high-text, both the sender and the speaker are involved in the context and each are evaluate to interpret the conversation with ease. In low-text, what must be said, will be said. As I mentioned earlier, in Singapore, non-verbal communication is just as important as verbal. Singaporeans rely on facial expressions, tones of voice, and posture to understand someone who is conducting a business transaction. And they really swan these non-verbal messages.Americans prefer comparatively little touching and relatively large personal space. Singapore is a collective society and the fall in State s is a passing individualistic society. Therefore, Singaporeans belong to in groups and rely on loyalty to between one another. In the United States, Americanslook after themselves and their families. Communication between Singapore may be different but with interpretation and noesis, a prosperous business relationship can be formed.ReligionThe major religion in the United States is Christianity. Singapore is very diverse. There are four major religions in Singapore, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. Americans are becoming more adequate of one another beliefs. Religion should not be a problem when doing business in Singapore because the United States is more tolerable of different religious beliefs. And with Singapore and the United States both identifying the freedom of religion, mutual respect should be given to any religious background. It is good practice to become familiar with religious backgrounds in order to conduct business more effectively.EthicsIndividualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. Collectivism pertains to societies in which people are integrated into sacrosanct, cohesive in-groups from birth that continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty (Hofstede 1980). Based on these theories, we engage that compared with individualist cultures, managers in state-controlled cultures are relatively less in all likelihood to follow social norms such as honesty, integrity, and law obedience. When there is a conflict of interest between corporate insiders (the in-group) and outside investors (the out-group), managers may prefer corporate insider interests, resulting in higher agency damages in collectivist cultures (Zhang, X., Liang, X., & angstrom Sun, H., 2013).Values and Attitudes, EthicsWhen it comes to values and attitudes of Singaporeans and Americans, we must remember Singaporeans are group oriented and Americans are concerned with making a aliveness for themselves. Singaporeans respect higher authority where Americans live by the saying, liberty and justice for all. Singapores first Shared Value principle is, nation before community and society before self. This is oppo turn up of the American value system. American shared values consist of Americans working, talking about their achievements, and earning fiscal rewards. EducationIt is authorization to pay heed school in the United States. It is mandatory for master(a) age students to attend school in Singapore. If the child does not attend school, it is a criminal offense. Both the United States and Singapore have primary, secondary, high school and education beyond graduation. Today, the United States government provides sponsorship for Singaporeans to attend schools in the United States. These students attend the most prestigious schools such as, Harvard, Cornell, and Stanford. Singaporeans are noticed fo r their high achievement in math and science. The United States government offer scholarships to outstanding Singapore students. The number of Singaporeans studying in the United States reflects that Singapore and the United States relationship could not be any better.Hofstedes AnalysisUsing Hofstedes cross cultural analysis work is one way to understand the difference in culture between Singapore and the United States. From 1967 to 1973 Geert Hofstede applied the subset of cultural dimensions to the field of business management, segregating them into independent areas to be come on divided in order to get a more precise understanding, Satterlee, 2009, p. 56). He analyzed a data base of employee values from IBM which covered more than 70 countries. Hofstede included force out standoffishness Index, Individualism, Masculinity, hesitation Avoidance Index, and long-term Orientation. Singapore scored higher in Power Distance Index. This means that members of organizations rely on their higher ups for authority rather than making decisions for themselves. Relationships are unequal between people. The United States scored higher in Individualism. Singapore is a collective society. The Americans are more concerned about individuals or themselves. Singapore scored in the middle in the Masculinity Index but tends to lean more to the feminine side. This shows a modest, humble, and softer aspect of culture. The Uncertainty Avoidance Index is the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society.Singapore scored low. Singaporeans abide by the rules due to high PDI. Singapore has many fines. The Americans operate on the idea of freedom of expression and do not require a lot of rules and strict laws. The last dimension is Long-Term Orientation. Long-term orientation refers to long-term versus short-term orientation toward the future, (Boonghee, Donthu, and Lenartowicz, 2013, p. 194). Singapore scored in the middle of this Index also. Singapore is showing an immense economic success. Singaporeans are showing a way to do things. The United States has seen signs of economic growth in Singapore and, by using Geert Hofstedes five dimensions to further understand the country, business relations are sure to continue in the future.What are the implications for US businesses that wish to conduct business in that region?Singapore and the United States are close strategic partners. Singapore is the United States 15th largest trading partner and 11th largest export market. United States enthronization in Singapore is over $116 gazillion and Singapore has $22 billion of foreign direct investment in th United States. task creation and economic development in Singapore due to American companies using Singapore as a regional base for doing business.U.S. job with Singapore and ASEANSingapore sees in the United States an economic partner and aegis ally that offers the most present value, hence motivating it to phrase a free trade symm etry as well as foster a military strategic partnership (Page, 2007). Economic conditions, an urgent consider for security, and fear of diplomatic isolation, are factors that lead to the United States and Singapore to put into effect the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). There were other extenuating circumstances that also drove the United States and Singapore to sign the FTA, most notably their common frustration with the stalled multilateral trade ease during the WTOs first decade the sluggish progress in the regional economic integration within the respective free trade region of ASEAN and the Free Trade Area for the Americas the unfitness of the 21 APEC members to come to dressing terms as to the way the ambitious Bogor agenda can forge Pacific Basin economic integration Singapores desire to spur ASEAN cohorts to inspire faster with market opening the US desire to bind the right of preferential access to the worlds largest market to Washingtons global se curity agenda and finally, ASEANs inability to keep political risk low to discourage capital flight (Page, 2007).The agreement was signed by the President of the United States, George Bush and Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong, May 2003 in Washington, DC. Both the United States and Singapore service from the signing of the FTA. With a population of 287.7 million and a per capita income of US$36,273, the United States can provide a strong economic stimulus which is badly needed during these times of sluggish regional growth and uncertainties (Tongzon, 2003).U.S. littoral fight ships (LCS) in SingaporeIn early 2012, US flexible basing in the region inched forward when the United States requested concurrence from Singapore to position up to four littoral combat ships (LCS) to Singapore by 2016 (Dalpino, 2012). The primary missions of the (LCS) are antisubmarine warfare, mine countermeasures and surface warfare against small boats. The Singapore military agreed to allow the naval shi ps to deploy in Singapore. The United States and Singapore navy will work together to finalize the process. Previously, Singapore had agreed to deploy two ships. Agreeing to deploy a total of four ships will strengthen U.S. engagement in the region. This is another strong in implication that the U.S. wants to conduct business in Singapore.U.S. Foreign Domestic investment funds (FDI) AnalysisForeign Direct Investment (FDI) refers to an investment made to incur lasting interest in trys operating outside of the economy of the investor. The investors purpose is to gain an effective voice in the management of the enterprise ( daybook of US-China Public Administration). While no standard percentage of ownership exists, most nations consider the threshold to be within the range of 10 to 25 percent. The US Department of Commerces FDI ownership is 10% (Satterlee, 119). Most companies seek out foreign investments as a way to gain a better return for their money. So, the company is looking t o expand in global markets but what about the local economy? Do local firms benefit from FDI? Spillover effects and linkages play a key role in this determination. Spillover effects relate toincreased productivity benefits of local firms and technology dissemination from multinational enterprise (MNEs) to the domestic economy. Up until the 70s, attitudes toward MNEs were hostile. Governments have since changed their policies pertaining to investors debut the local markets due to the potentially positive impact of FDI. Governments attempt to attract FDI expecting to increase the productivity of local firms. Intangible assets, such as familiarity and technology are spilled over to local firms.It is believed that local firms benefit from prime(prenominal) knowledge of product or process technologies or markets without occurring a cost that exhausts the whole gain from the improvement (Asian cordial Science, p.68). In addition, the Asian Social Science journal explains how MNEs set up direct linkages to suppliers when entering through FDI (Stephan, (2013). Linkages are non-equity relationships with suppliers or customers and are a crucial channel for knowledge diffusion. When MNEs enter the host country, local firms do not have knowledge about technical innovation or it may be too costly for them. This leads to locals feeling a sense of uncertainty, which is an ex axerophtholle of knowledge confusion. some other ex antiophthalmic factorle refers to the movement of labor. MNEs may provide more training for their employees and invest in staff development than local firms. This builds more human capital. The spillover occurs when these MNE employees move to other local firms and transfer their gained knowledge to local firms, increasing the locals productivity. Another ex group Aerele of the spillover effect on locals refers to increased competition. When MNEs enter the market, local firms are forced to become more efficient. Local firms have to update their te chnology or use it more efficiently in order to become more competitive.This could yield productivity gains and also increase the speed of adoption of new technology. Increased competition can also lead to productivity losses for local firms. This article gives an ex international adenosine monophosphateerele of how a study of 4000 Venezuelan companies that the productivity of wholly domestically owned firms decreases when FDI increases. The presence of MNEs lead to a loss of market share and referred to this loss as the market stealing effect of MNEs. The presence of MNEs may lead to displace out of local firms.SWOT AnalysisStrengths? Singapore is the fifth least corrupt country in the world. ? Strikes and labor protests will remain rare, if not absent, for the foreseeable future. Weaknesses ? The government censors the media and limits the distribution of foreign publications. Opportunities ? Owing to the lack of progress at the WTO, the government has committed the country to sign 18 bilaterally symmetric free trade agreements with 24 trading partners. ? Singapore has one of the best business operating environments in Asia.Threats? The city-state has previously been identified as a target by Islamist militants from neighboring Indonesia and elsewhere, (Singapore Defence & deoxyadenosine monophosphate Security Report, 2013). closing curtainAs stated earlier, Singapore is known today as one of the most prosperous countries and boasts the worlds busiest port. It is clean and orderly, and since becoming an independent country, Singapore is one of the least corrupt countries in the world. It is a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi-religious society consisting of four major languages and four major religions. These factors aid in having successful business relation. By identifying cultural similarities and differences, Americans can benefit from the structure of the Singaporean family values. Americans are known for making money instead of building relati onships and establishing strong social bonds. There is opportunity for economic growth within the Singaporean region. The United States has already recognized the prosperity within the region and has build on that knowledge. The United States and Singapore will continue to develop a better relationship in the future and form a solid base for amicable relations between the two countries.ReferencesAljunied, S. (2005). Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Discourse on the Malay World A Revisionist Perspective. SOJOURN ledger of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 20(1), 1-22. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=17381757& pose=ehost-live&scope= targetDalpino, C. (2012). US-southeast Asia relations Conflict in the east Opportunity in the west. comparative Connections, 14(1), 57-67,152-153. Retrieved from http//search.proquest.com/docview/1030087243?accountid=12085De Prato, Giuditta Simon, Jean-Paul. (2013) Singapore, an Industrial Cluste r and a Global IT Hub. Communications & Strategies. 89 (First Quarter 2013) 125-136.Boonghee, Y., Donthu, N., & Lenartowicz, T. (2011). Measuring Hofstedes Five Dimensions of Cultural Values at the Individual Level Development and Validation of CVSCALE. Journal of world-wide Consumer Marketing, 23(3/4), 193-210. doi10.1080/08961530.2011.578059http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=62668126& localize=ehost-live&scope= investFDI Contributes to Output Growth in the U.S. Economy. (2011). Journal of US-China Public Administration, 8(1), 104-109. http//search.ebscohost.com.proxy163.nclive.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=58738936&site=ehost-liveHan, C. (2007). History education and Asian values for an Asian democracy The wooing of Singapore. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=25728526&site=ehost-live&scope=siteNichols, P. (2012). The Psychic embody o f Violating Corruption. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 45(1), 145-210. http//www.vanderbilt.edu/jotl/manage/wp-content/uploads/Nichols_CR5.pdfNuyen, A. (2008). Ecological education What resources are there in Confucian ethics?. Environmental Education Research, 14(2), 187-197. doi10.1080/13504620801932590 http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31519142&site=ehost-live&scope=siteOng, W., Chang, P. (2012). Business Ethics and Buddhism. Review of Business Research, 12(4), 139-149. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=84358993&site=ehost-live&scope=sitePang, E. (2007). Embedding security into free trade The case of the United States-Singapore free trade agreement. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 29(1), 1-32. Retrieved from http//search.proquest.com/docview/205240058?accountid=12085Ramin, C. M., & Valerie, P. G. (1999). Female business owners in Singapore and else where A review of studies. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(2), 96-105. Retrieved from http//search.proquest.com/docview/221003775?accountid=12085Satterlee, B.C., (2009) Cross border commerce, Culture (pp.1-177) Roanoke, VA Synergistics Inc.Sebastian, R., & Parameswaran, A. (2008). run Krishnas in Singapore Agency, State, and Hinduism. (Cover story). Sojourn Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 23(1), 63-85. doi 10.1355/sj23-1c http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33063696&site=ehost-live&scope=siteSingapore Country Conditions Background. (2003). political Risk Yearbook Singapore Country Report, 59. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=10272527&site=ehost-live&scope=siteSingapore Defence & Security Report. (2013). Singapore Defense & Security Report, (2), 3-75.http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth &AN=87379364&site=ehost-live&scope=siteStephan, G. (2013). Do Local Firms pull ahead from Foreign Direct Investment? An Analysis of Spillover Effects in evolution Countries. Asian Social Science, 9(4), 67-76. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=87058564&site=ehost-live&scope=siteTahir, A. (2012). Islams ideal of Jihad (A Philological Analysis). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(5), 119-127. http//search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=83574864&site=ehost-live&scope=siteTan, C. (2012). 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